Viral hepatitis

/Viral hepatitis
Viral hepatitis2018-03-05T09:32:53+00:00

Types of Viral Hepatitis

Its transmission is fecal-oral, by contact between individuals or through water or food contaminated by the virus.

The best way to avoid disease is improving sanitation and sanitation conditions, such as:

Wash hands after going to the bathroom, changing diapers and before eating or preparing food.

Wash well, with treated, chlorinated or boiled water, the foods that are consumed raw, leaving them to soak for 30 minutes.

Cook the food well before consuming them, especially seafood, seafood and pork.

Wash dishes, cups, cutlery and baby bottles properly.

Do not bathe or play near bays, streams, fountains, floods or near where there is open sewage.

Avoid the construction of trenches near wells and river springs, so as not to compromise the water sheet that feeds the well. The minimum distance of 15 meters between the pit and the dry pit and 45 meters should be respected for safety measures for other contamination outposts, such as pens, stables, sewers, infiltration galleries and others.

If there is a patient with hepatitis A at home, use 2.5% sodium hypochlorite or bleach when washing the toilet.

In the case of kindergartens, pre-schools, snack bars, restaurants and closed institutions, adopt strict hygiene measures, such as disinfection of objects, countertops and floors using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite or bleach.

The diagnosis of the disease is performed by blood test, which looks for anti-HAV antibodies. After confirmation, the health professional will indicate the most appropriate treatment, according to the patient’s health. The disease is fully curable when the carrier correctly follows all medical recommendations. In most cases, hepatitis A is a benign disease. Causes severe acute liver failure and can be fulminant in less than 1% of cases.

Caused by the B virus (HBV), hepatitis B is an infectious disease also known as serum-homologous. As HBV is present in blood, sperm and breast milk, hepatitis B is considered a sexually transmitted disease.

Among the causes of transmission are:

By unprotected sex with an infected person, from infected mother to child during pregnancy birth or breastfeeding share material for drug use (syringes, needles, pipes) tattooing and piercing, by transfusion of contaminated blood.

Most cases of hepatitis B have no symptoms . But the most frequent are tiredness, dizziness, nausea and / or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, yellowing of the skin and eyes, dark urine and light stools. These signs usually appear one to six months after infection. As viral hepatitis are silent diseases, consult a physician regularly and take the test.

Hepatitis B can develop in two ways, acute and chronic. The acute is when the infection has short duration . Health professionals consider the form to be chronic when the disease lasts for more than six months. The risk of the disease becoming chronic depends on the age at which the infection occurs. Children are the most affected. In those with less than one year, this risk reaches 90%; between 1 and 5 years, varies between 20% and 50%. In adults, the rate drops to 5% to 10%.

The hepatitis B diagnosis is done by specific blood test. After the positive result, the doctor will indicate the appropriate treatment. In addition to medications (when necessary), a cut in the consumption of alcoholic beverages is indicated for a minimum period of six months and remedies to relieve symptoms such as vomiting and fever.

Prevent:

Avoiding the disease is very easy. Just take all three doses of the vaccine, use condoms in all sex and do not share personal effects such as razor and shave blades, toothbrushes, manicure and pedicure, equipment for drug use, tattoo making and piercing. The condom is available in the public health network. If you do not know where to remove the condom, call Dial Health (136). In addition, every pregnant woman needs to get prenatal and exams to detect hepatitis, aids and syphilis. This care is critical to avoid mother-to-child transmission. If so, it is necessary to follow all medical recommendations, including the type of delivery and breastfeeding.

Vaccine:

Currently, the Unified Health System provides free hepatitis B vaccine at any health post . But, it is necessary: ​​to be up to 49 years, 11 months and 29 days (see technical notes 01/2012, 89/2010 and 02/2013);

belong to the most vulnerable group (regardless of age) – pregnant women, health workers, firefighters, police, manicures, indigenous populations, blood donors, gays, lesbians, transvestites and transsexuals, sex workers, drug users, STD sufferers (see full list).

Immunization is only effective when taking all three doses, with a one-month interval between the first and second doses and six months between the first and third doses.

Among the causes of transmission are: </ span>

Blood transfusion.

Sharing of material for use of drugs (syringes, needles, pipes, etc.), personal hygiene (razor and shaving razors, toothbrushes, nail pliers or other objects that pierce or cut) or for tattooing and placement of piercings

From infected mother to child during pregnancy (more rare).

Sex without a condom with an infected person (more rare).

The sexual transmission of HCV among heterosexual partners is very infrequent, especially in monogamous couples. Therefore, hepatitis C is not a Sexually Transmissible Disease (STD); however, among men who have sex with men (MSM) and in the presence of HIV infection, the sexual pathway should be considered for HCV transmission.

The appearance of symptoms in people with acute hepatitis C is very rare. However, the most frequent are fatigue, dizziness, nausea and / or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, yellowish eyes, dark urine and light stools. Because it is a silent disease, it is important to consult with a doctor regularly and do the routine tests that detect all forms of hepatitis. </ span> Early diagnosis of hepatitis effectiveness of treatment. There are SUS care centers in every state in the country that offer hepatitis C treatment. </ span> Check which health center is closest to you here.

When the HCV infection persists for more than six months, which is common in up to 80% of cases, it is characterized the evolution to the chronic form. About 20% of those chronically infected with HCV can progress to liver cirrhosis and about 1% to 5% for liver cancer. Treatment of hepatitis C depends on the type of virus (genotype) and liver involvement (fibrosis). For this, it is necessary to perform specific tests, such as liver biopsy in patients without clinical evidence of cirrhosis and molecular biology tests.

Prevent:

There is no vaccine against hepatitis C, but avoiding the disease is very easy . Just do not share anything with others that may have come in contact with blood, such as syringes, needles, and sharp objects. Individual and social vulnerabilities should include use of alcohol and other drugs and lack of access to information and prevention inputs such as condoms, pipes, syringes, and disposable needles. If you do not know where to get access to prevention supplies, call Disque Saúde (136) .

In addition, every pregnant woman needs to do prenatal screening for hepatitis B and C, AIDS and syphilis. This care is critical to avoid mother-to-child transmission. In case of a positive result, it is necessary to follow all medical recommendations, including on the type of delivery and breastfeeding (cracks within the mother can allow the passage of blood).

Hepatitis D virus (HPV) infection occurs only in patients infected with the hepatitis B virus. In patients chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus, concomitant infection with HDV accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus. chronic disease. Vaccination against Hepatitis B also protects against a hepatitis D infection.

Of common occurrence rare in Brazil and common in Asia and Africa, hepatitis type E is a viral infectious disease caused by the HEV virus. Its transmission is fecal-oral, by contact between individuals or through water or food contaminated by the virus. Like the other variations of the disease, almost no symptoms. However, the most frequent are fatigue, dizziness, nausea and / or vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, yellowing of the skin and eyes, dark urine and light stools. These signs usually appear 15 to 60 days after infection.

The diagnosis is performed by blood test</ span>, which looks for anti-HEV antibodies. In most cases, the disease does not require treatment, being prohibited the consumption of alcoholic beverages, recommended rest and diet low in fats. The hospitalization is only indicated in patients with more severe clinical picture, mainly pregnant women.

Prevent:

The best way to avoid disease is to improve hygiene conditions and sanitation.

Recent reports show that the identification of the hepatitis F virus (VHF) has not been confirmed, so this type of hepatitis can be disregarded.
Hepatitis G virus (HGV), also known as GBV-C, is transmitted through the blood and is common among users of intravenous drugs and recipients of transfusions.

The G virus can also be transmitted during pregnancy and sexually. It is often found in coinfection with other viruses, such as Hepatitis C (HCV), Hepatitis B (HBV) and AIDS (HIV).

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